Salvador A. Computer Vision beyond the visible: Image understanding through language. Giró-i-Nieto X, Marqués F. Signal Theory and Communications. [Barcelona]: Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; 2019.

Abstract

In the past decade, deep neural networks have revolutionized computer vision. High performing deep neural architectures trained for visual recognition tasks have pushed the field towards methods relying on learned image representations instead of hand-crafted ones, in the seek of designing end-to-end learning methods to solve challenging tasks, ranging from long-lasting ones such as image classification to newly emerging tasks like image captioning. 

As this thesis is framed in the context of the rapid evolution of computer vision, we present contributions that are aligned with three major changes in paradigm that the field has recently experienced, namely 1) the power of re-utilizing deep features from pre-trained neural networks for different tasks, 2) the advantage of formulating problems with end-to-end solutions given enough training data, and 3) the growing interest of describing visual data with natural language rather than pre-defined categorical label spaces, which can in turn enable visual understanding beyond scene recognition.

The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the problem of visual instance search, where we particularly focus on obtaining meaningful and discriminative image representations which allow efficient and effective retrieval of similar images given a visual query. Contributions in this part of the thesis involve the construction of sparse Bag-of-Words image representations from convolutional features from a pre-trained image classification neural network, and an analysis of the advantages of fine-tuning a pre-trained object detection network using query images as training data.

The second part of the thesis presents contributions to the problem of image-to-set prediction, understood as the task of predicting a variable-sized collection of unordered elements for an input image. We conduct a thorough analysis of current methods for multi-label image classification, which are able to solve the task in an end-to-end manner by simultaneously estimating both the label distribution and the set cardinality. Further, we extend the analysis of set prediction methods to semantic instance segmentation, and present an end-to-end recurrent model that is able to predict sets of objects (binary masks and categorical labels) in a sequential manner.

Finally, the third part of the dissertation takes insights learned in the previous two parts in order to present deep learning solutions to connect images with natural language in the context of cooking recipes and food images. First, we propose a retrieval-based solution in which the written recipe and the image are encoded into compact representations that allow the retrieval of one given the other. Second, as an alternative to the retrieval approach, we propose a generative model to predict recipes directly from food images, which first predicts ingredients as sets and subsequently generates the rest of the recipe one word at a time by conditioning both on the image and the predicted ingredients.

  • Committee: Joost Joost van de Weijer (CVC-UAB), Javier Ruiz (UPC-IDEAI), Laura Leal-Taixé (TUM), Jasper Uijlings (Google AI), Àgata Lapedriza (UOC-MIT).
  • Grade: Excellent Cum Laude
  • Slides